Melihat siklus curah hujan harian Indonesia dengan data penginderaan jauh

Saat ini banyak sekali artikel-artikel yang membahas siklus curah hujan harian untuk wilayah Indonesia. Dan gambarnya bisa dilihat di samping (Biasutti et al., 2011; Qian, 2008).

Menarik untuk dilihat klo ternyata hujan “di wilayah kita” ini secara umum dimulai setelah matahari berada di atas ufuk. Kok di bilang “di wilayah kita”? Soalnya “di wilayah kita” yang dimakasud disini ya di tempat kita tinggal yaitu di daratan. Klo tinggalnya di laut berati ga termasuk wilayah kita ya :mrgreen:.

coba dilihat deh baik2, klo pas pagi hari hampir seluruh wilayah daratan di Indonesia bening alias putih alias ga ada hujan, pas dah sore, seluruh wilayah daratan indonesia itu gelap gulita alias memiliki hujan lebat. Baca entri selengkapnya »

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Comparison of TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) products and daily-monthly gauge data over Bali

https://i1.wp.com/ledweb.scsio.ac.cn/porsec2008/pic/TRES.jpgInternational Journal of Remote Sensing

Volume 32, Issue 24, 2011

DOI:10.1080/01431161.2010.531784

A. R. As-syakurab*, T. Tanakabc, R. Prasetiabd, I. K. Swardikac & I. W. Kasae

pages 8969-8982

Abstract

Research has been conducted to compare daily, monthly and seasonal rain rates derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multisatellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) using rain gauge analysis from 1998 to 2002. Three rain gauges in the Bali islands were employed. Statistical analysis was used to analyse the relationship of the TMPA product with the rain gauge data. Resulting statistical measures consisted of the linear correlation coefficient (r), the mean bias error (MBE), the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE). The results of these analyses indicate that satellite data have lower values than the gauge estimation values. The validation analysis showed a very good relationship with the gauge data on monthly timescales. However, a poor relationship was found between the gauge data and the daily data analysis from the TMPA. The 3B42 and 3B43 products showed the same levels of relationship during the wet season and dry season. The correlation in the dry season was better than during the wet season. Statistical error levels during the wet season were better than in the dry season. The 3B43 showed slight improvement in these values when compared with the 3B42 (both the random error measurement and the scatter of the estimates were reduced). In general, the data from TMPA are potentially usable to replace rain gauge data, especially to replace the monthly data, if inconsistencies and errors are taken into account. Baca entri selengkapnya »

Booking online tiket pesawat

Untuk database pribadi. jadi copas dari http://booking.bandarudara.com/. semoga berguna buat pembaca blog ini

AirAsia :: Booking Online

AirAsia Indonesia Bookings: Cara Booking & Bayar : Apakah yang di maksud booking tanpa tiket? Konsep tanpa tiket adalah pengganti metode tiket pesawat yang ada saat ini, yang telah digunakan AirAsia selama beberapa tahun terakhir. Dengan perjalanan Tanpa tiket, yang perlu anda lakukan hanyalah membooking penerbangan anda dan anda akan diberi Nomor/Kode Booking. Anda tidak perlu membawa Rencana Perjalanan/Flight Itinerary anda untuk check-in. Yang perlu anda ingat hanyalah Nomor Booking anda, atau sebutkan nama anda. Anda harus memperlihatkan kartu identitas atau paspor anda untuk keperluan identifikasi dan Check-in Lengkap: http://www.airasia.com.

Batavia Air :: Booking Online

Batavia Air Indonesia Bookings. Batavia Air adalah perusahaan penerbangan nasional pertama yang mengoperasikan pesawat Airbus A-319 sejak Januari 2006. Batavia Air saat ini mengoperasikan lebih dari 150 penerbangan setiap harinya dan melayani 29 kota tujuan di Indonesia serta Guangzhou-Cina dan Kuching-Malaysia. Batavia Air memiliki 36 pesawat yang terdiri dari pesawat Boeing 737-200, 737-300, 737-400, Airbus A-319 dan Airbus A-320.

Citilink :: Booking Online

Citilink is LCC Airlines, Business Airlines, Bisnis LCC, penerbangan murah di indonesia, moto get simplycity and fly : Citilink berusaha dengan sungguh-sungguh untuk memberikan layanan transportasi udara sederhana kepada semua pelanggan, dan kami selalu berusaha mencari cara untuk menyempurnakan hal tersebut. Layanan-layanan kami, yang mencakup aspek-aspek tertentu dari pemesanan kursi dan persyaratan perjalanan, dirancang untuk mencerminkan kesungguhan tersebut, bahkan dalam beberapa hal kami memberikan lebih dari apa yang disyaratkan secara tegas dalam undang-undang.

Garuda Indonesia Airline :: Booking Online

Garuda Indonesia Airline Bookings Garuda Indonesia’s commitment to total quality improvement in the area of service, safety, on-time departures and load factors has brought the company to a period of dynamic and successful change in providing safe, comfortable and reliable air transportation services.

Gatari Air Services :: Booking Online

It is our pleasure to take you on a journey into the enterprising field of private Air Charter. A world totally dedicated to meeting your unique travel needs : the world of Gatari Air Service. Over more than a decade Gatari has built an enviable reputation as Southeast Asia’s premier air charter operator. Gatari listens to it clients and has constantly adapted to match their special and changing requirements, while adhering strictly to global aviation, standards and procedures.

Kartika Airlines :: Booking Online

Kartika Airlines, a local airline with new world class standard of flying pleasure. Starting on June 2005, Kartika Airlines is flying broader to meet middle-up business needs. Explore new experiences of flying to more domestic destinations with us. We are supported by well trained human resources and our proven aircraft for a highest level of flying satisfaction. And of-course, enjoy our new standard in-flight services, and we will fly you the way you always want to fly.

Lion Air / Wings Air :: Booking Online

From modest beginnings as a one-plane airline that first flew in 2000, Lion Air has navigated its way through the turbulence in the wake of the financial crisis that blew through the region in 1997 to emerge as Indonesia’s leading budget airline carrier. Today, we operate 37 planes flying to not only all of Indonesia’s major cities and wondrous tourist destinations, but to Singapore, Penang and Kuala Lumpur as well. And we’re just taking off.

Mandala Airlines :: Booking Online

Mandala Airlines has developed a Total Experience service concept focused on customer satisfaction and excellent, high quality service. Berdiri sejak 1967, Mandala Airlines merupakan salah satu perintis usaha penerbangan komersial di Indonesia. Mandala adalah satu-satunya perusahaan penerbangan non-pemerintah generasi awal yang telah berhasil melewati masa krisis dan mampu berkembang pesat untuk menghadapi persaingan modern dengan mengembangkan organisasi, kemampuan operasional dan juga armada pesawatnya.

Merpati Nusantara Airline :: Booking Online

Merpati Nusantara Airlines was born by the motherland and has grown up among the difference of cultures and language atmospheres which Merpati has been challenged to obtain its maturity. It has improved from year to year. Merpati always sends its best service through nations as the good image building for national aviation. A national leading airlines company is the commitment of achievement. The pole has been planted and the flag has been displayed. Merpati continues to take off through global era to share the value of nation.

Trigana Air :: Booking Online

The main attribute and underlying strength of TRIGANA AIR SERVICE is our aircrews, with their maturity, experience and dedication, their customer oriented hospitality, their combined commitment to performance and service and most of all, their belief in and practice of the highest safety standards, which have been declared by the Company to be our corporate culture. For ease we have named our philosophy as – professional – which has become our standard for operation and maintenance.

Valuair / Jetstar :: Booking Online

Jetstar is Australia’s and Singapore’s new low fares airline (Valuair) for Indonesia, Singapore, Australia and the Asia-Pacific. Our aim is to provide consistent low fares to Australian, New Zealand and Asian leisure travellers. We started flying within Australia on the 25th of May, 2004 and within Asia just over six months later, offering customers a simple and fresh travel experience. Our bold and distinctive brand is indicative of the fresh and vibrant approach toward low cost travel in the region. Baca entri selengkapnya »

Data Hujan dari TRMM [Pemanfaatan]: Anomali hujan saat La Nina dilihat dari data penginderaan jauh TRMM

Aplikasi data penginderaan jauh emang tidak ada habisnya. Klo sebelumnya blog ini bercerita tentang Data Hujan dari TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission); Basic Information, maka pada tulisan ini akan bercerita tentang bagaimana pemanfaatan data TRMM untuk memantau anomali curah hujan di indonesia saat fenomena iklim La Nina. Sudah banyak tulisan di blog ini yang menyatakan bahwa saat fenomena La Nina curah hujan di indonesia akan meningkat secara signifikan, tetapi dimana saja terjadinya masih dalam perdebatan. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang sebaran anomali hujan sat kejadian La Nina.

Seharusnya saya bercerita dulu tentang bagaimana tingkat keakurasian data TRMM ini, saya sudah menulisnya dan akan segera diterbitkan dalam prosiding international, sambil menunggu terbitnya paper itu, saya akan bercerita duluan tentang pengaplikasiannya untuk mengetahui persentase anomali hujannya. Studi kasusnya di Indonesia dan saya mengambil saat kejadian La Nina. Kenapa kejadian La Nina, karena selama berorbitnya satelit ini, belum pernah terjadi ke jadian El Nino yang kuat (rentang waktu 1998-2011), ya mau ga mau untuk kejadian La Nina saja. Tetapi secara umum lokasi anomali iklim yang diakbatkan oleh kejadian La Nina ataupun El Nino di Indonesia adalah sama. Baca entri selengkapnya »

Coral reef response to global warming: paper collections

This is a list of papers on coral response to global warming and the ocean acidification. The list is not complete, and will most likely be updated in the future in order to make it more thorough and more representative.

Sea-surface temperature and thermal stress in the Coral Triangle over the past two decades – (Penaflor et al.) (2009)  “Increasing ocean temperature has become one of the major concerns in recent times with reports of various related ecological impacts becoming commonplace. One of the more notable is the increased frequency of mass coral bleaching worldwide. This study focuses on the Coral Triangle region and utilizes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Coral Reef Watch (NOAACRW) satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) products to investigate changes in the thermal regime of the Coral Triangle waters between 1985 and 2006. Results show an upward trend in SST during this period with an average rate of 0.2C/ decade. However, warming within this region is not uniform, and the waters of the northern and eastern parts of the Coral Triangle are warming fastest. Areas in the eastern part have experienced more thermal stress events, and these stress events appear to be more likely during a La Nina.” Penaflor et al, Coral Reefs (2009) 28:841–850. [full text]

Coral Reefs and Ocean Acidification – Kleypas and Yates (2009)Coral reefs were one of the first ecosystems to be recognized as vulnerable to ocean acidification. To date, most scientific investigations into the effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs have been related to the reefs’ unique ability to produce voluminous amounts of calcium carbonate. It has been estimated that the main reef-building organisms, corals and calcifying macroalgae, will calcify 10–50% less relative to pre-industrial rates by the middle of this century. This decreased calcification is likely to affect their ability to function within the ecosystem and will almost certainly affect the workings of the ecosystem itself. However, ocean acidification affects not only the organisms, but also the reefs they build. The decline in calcium carbonate production, coupled with an increase in calcium carbonate dissolution, will diminish reef building and the benefits that reefs provide, such as high structural complexity that supports biodiversity on reefs, and breakwater effects that protect shorelines and create quiet habitats for other ecosystems, such as mangroves and seagrass beds. The focus on calcification in reefs is warranted, but the responses of many other organisms, such as fish, noncalcifying algae, and seagrasses, to name a few, deserve a close look as well.” Joan A. Kleypas and Kimberly K. Yates, Oceanography 22(4):108–117, DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2009.101. [full text]

Monitoring coral reefs from Space – Eakin et al., (2010) “Coral reefs are one of the world’s most biologically diverse and productive ecosystems. However, these valuable resources are highly threatened by human activities. Satellite remotely sensed observations enhance our understanding of coral reefs and some of the threats facing them by providing global spatial and time-series data on reef habitats and the environmental conditions influencing them in near-real time. This review highlights many of the ways in which satellites are currently used to monitor coral reefs and their threats, and provides a look toward future needs and capabilities.” Eakin CM, Nim CJ, Russell EB, Aubrecht C, Elvidge C, Gledhill DK, Muller-Karger F, Mumby PJ, Skirving WJ, Strong AE, Wang M, Weeks SJ, Wentz F, Ziskin D, Oceanography, 23(4):118–133, DOI:10.5670/oceanog.2010.10 [full text] Baca entri selengkapnya »

Worldwide map of nuclear power stations and earthquake zones

Sumber: maptd.com

seismic activity and nuclear power station locations

Following the incidents at nuclear power plants in Japan after the earthquake I was wondering which power stations around the world are near active earthquake zones.

With this in mind, I’ve created a map combining two sets of information:

  • A heatmap of every 4.5+ magnitude earthquake since to 1973 – around 174,000 in total
  • The location of 248 atomic energy plants, including numbers of reactors. Represented by blue markers.

The seismic data are from the United States Geological Survey and the nuclear power station information the International Atomic Energy Agency. The map is built from two Google Fusion tables, here and here.

To see the actual locations of the earthquakes you can toggle the heatmap off and display markers instead.

Map of global earthquake activity and nuclear power plant locations.

Tahun-tahun El Nino, La Nina, IOD positif dan IOD negatif

Berbicara tentang El Nino, La Nina serta IOD benar-benar tidak ada habisnya… hal ini ya karena fenomena-fenomena itu memiliki dampak yang cukup besar terhadap kondisi lingkungan dan social di Indonesia. Dampak-dampak itu bias bersifat positif maupun bersifat negative. Tapi biasanya untuk saat-saat ini hanya dampak negative yang serinmg di dengung-dengungkan… ya biasalah… :mrgreen:

Saat ini saya akan memcoba menulis tahun-tahun kejadian El Nino, La Nina, IOD positif, dan IOD negatif. Isu ini saya coba angkat karena masih ada beberapa penulis lepas yang sekedar mengutip informasi tanpa mengecek kembali kebenaran dari informasi tersebut. ENSO merupakan pola berulang dari variabilitas iklim di bagian timur samudera Pasifik yang ditandai dengan anomali temperatur permukaan laut (penghangatan permukaan laut menggambarkan kejadian El Nino sedangkan pendinginan permukaan laut menggambarkan kejadian La Nina) serta anomali Sea level pressure (Southern Oscillation). Perlu diingatkan kembali bahwa kejadian El Nino dicirikan oleh PENGHANGATAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI SAMUDERA PASIFIK BAGIAN TENGAH DAN MEMBENTUK SUATU KOLAM HANGAT YANG BEREFEK PADA PENDINGINAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI LAUTAN INDONESIA sedangkan kejadian La Nina dicirikan oleh PENDINGINAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI SAMUDERA PASIFIK BAGIAN TENGAH DAN KOLAM HANGATNYA BERPINDAH KE BAGIAN BARAT SAMUDERA PASIFIK (DISEKITAR LAUTAN INDONESIA) YANG BEREFEK PADA PENGHANGATAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI LAUTAN INDONESIA. IOD dicirikan oleh adanya zona gradien perbedaan suhu permukaan laut yang kuat di wilayah ekuatorial samudera hindia. IOD positif dicirikan oleh MENGHANGATNYA SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI SEKITAR BENUA AFRIKA DAN MENDINGINNYA SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI SEKITAR PULAU SUMATERA. Sedangkan IOD negatif dicirikan oleh MENDINGINNYA SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI SEKITAR BENUA AFRIKA DAN MENGHANGATNYA SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT DI SEKITAR PULAU SUMATERA. Kondisi ini harus di ingat dan jangan di balik-balik. Beberapa tulisan mengartikan kondisi hangat (warm even) di samudera pasifik juga diartikan kondisi hangat di lautan Indonesia, padahal saat disana itu panas, ya disini dingin… 😀 Baca entri selengkapnya »

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