Environmental Sensitivity Index Assessment using Formosat-2 Satellite in Labuan Coastal, Banten
Widitya Putri Fitriyanny Subagio 1), Abd. Rahman As-syakur 2), Wandito Himawan Soedomo 3), and I Wayan Sandi Adnyana 4)1) Research Center for Marine Technology – Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries 2) ,4) Environmental Research Center Udayana University 3) The Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology
Labuan coastal has highly risk of pollution case that might be distributed both from activity in north area and land activity throughout coastline. Buffer process produced three zones of sensitivity area. Sensitive area located in Karang Kebua Island and Popole Island. Average sensitive area located throughout coastline in Pagelaran sub district, Panimbang sub district and north part of Labuan sub district. Less sensitive area located throughout coastline in south part of Labuan sub district. From numerical simulation result, Popole Island could get direct impact from steam power plant (PLTU Labuan) activity. Meanwhile, coastline area throughout Labuan sub district, Pagelaran sub district and Panimbang sub district have potential to be polluted from pollutant in north area that might be brought through current circulation. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map can be used to decide which area is the most susceptible and sensitive concern with pollution in order to support regional planning strategy for stakeholders and decision makers.
Penilaian Tingkat Kepekaan Lingkungan menggunakan Citra Formosat-2 di Pesisir Labuan, Banten
Pesisir Labuan memiliki potensi resiko yang tinggi untuk kasus pencemaran dimana sumber pencemar dapat berasal dari daerah utara dan aktivitas di sepanjang Pesisir Labuan itu sendiri. Hasil buffer pada Sistem Informasi Geografi (SIG) menghasilkan tiga zona tingkat kepekaan lingkungan. Daerah peka terdapat di Pulau Karang Kebua dan Pulau Popole. Daerah agak peka terdapat di sepanjang daerah garis pantai Kecamatan Pagelaran, Kecamatan Panimbang dan bagian utara Kecamatan Labuan. Daerah kurang peka terdapat di Pulau Liwungan dan bagian selatan Kecamatan Labuan. Hasil model numerik menunjukkan Pulau Popole berpotensi untuk menerima dampak langsung dari pencemaran yang dihasilkan oleh PLTU Labuan. Sementara itu daerah sepanjang pesisir Labuan juga berpotensi untuk terkena dampak polusi dari aktivitas industri dan pariwisata di daerah utara melalui pola sirkulasi arus. Peta Indeks Kepekaan Lingkungan (IKL) dapat digunakan untuk menentukan daerah yang sangat peka terhadap pencemar yang dapat dipergunakan oleh para pengambil keputusan dan pihak yang berkepentingan untuk menentukan strategi pengelolaan wilayah setempat.
Coastal areas, by virtual of their position at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems, belong to the most dynamic and important ecosystems on Earth (Yang et al., 1999). They are also the foci of human settlement, industry, and tourism. Large coastal population and intense development are exacerbating environmental stress and degradation of the coastal ecosystems, thus placing an elevated burden on organizations responsible for the planning and management of these highly sensitive areas (Yang, 2008).
Coastal maps are widely regarded to be an essential data source for coastal management planning (Mumby et al., 1999). To a large extent, management objectives can be defined in terms of coastal area, either because of their intrinsic value or because of their significance in habitat characterization. Remote sensing could be used to mapping coastal environment. Remotely sensed optical signatures have proved useful for mapping mangrove, Coral Reefs, Macroalgae and other coastal habitat (Green et al., 2000).
Labuan coastal located between industrial and tourism activity in northern area (Cilegon, Carita, Anyer areas) that might bring some pollutants through ocean circulation process to Labuan coastal and also Ujung Kulon National Park in the south which designated for conservation area. It is important to arrange Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map in order to get information where is the most sensitive area concern with pollutant in Labuan coastal. In the present study ESI analysis maps are prepared to collect information regarding environmental baseline status of the study area pertaining to physical, human, biological resources, land use/land cover, and socio-economic attributes which form important attribute for ESI maps (Sexena et al., 2004).
The most sensitive area in Labuan coastal needs special monitoring because this area will be very susceptible with pollutant. Result of Environmental Sensitivity Index map can be used to support stakeholders and decision makers to arrange regional planning strategy in Labuan coastal.
Formosat-2, a satellite owned by the Taiwan National Space Organisation (NSPO), was launched in May 2004. It provides images with features very close to Venμs: spatial resolution of 8 m in four spectral bands centered at 488, 555, 650 and 830 nm, spatial resolution of 2 m in panchromatic spectral, and field of view of 24 km (Hagolle, et al., 2008). The orbital cycle is completed within one day. The sensor may deviate from nadir in order to point at sites close to the ground track. Therefore, accessible locations at Earth’s surface are observed under a unique viewing direction (Bsaibes et al., 2009).
Remote sensing image analysis systems and geographic information systems (GIS) show great promise for the integration of a wide variety of spatial information as a support to tasks ESI. Remote sensing often requires other kinds of ancillary data to achieve both its greatest value and the highest level of accuracy as a data and information production technology. GIS can provide this capability (Star and Estes, 1990). GIS can make order to develop the required capability of natural resources mapping and periodical monitoring (Muzein, 2006). As the coastal sensitive response community moves towards development of automated sensitivity maps, it is important to define what comprises the ESI mapping system and how this information is being developed and distributed using GIS technology (NOAA, 2002).
All can be read in
Subagio, W.P.F., A.R. As-syakur, W.H. Soedomo, And I.W.S. Adnyana. 2010. Environmental Sensitivity Index Assessment using Formosat-2 Satellite in Labuan Coastal, Banten. Prosiding PIT ISOI VI. pp. 1-12.